Cervical Cancer remains to be a major cause of female fatality worldwide. The disease usually develops in the form of a squamous cell carcinoma following infection by the human papillomavirus, however the cancer can also develop in the form of an adenocarcinoma with roughly 1% of women who are infected with the virus developing the disease (1,2). The average age range for cervical cancer diagnosis is between the ages of 34 and 44, with disease development rarely occurring in women below the age of 20. Having said this many women are not aware that their risk of developing this disease is still present as they age, with around 20% of cases occurring in women over the age of 65 (3). Despite the implementation of effective HPV vaccines and PAP/smear tests to reduce the chances of HPV infection and detect the early signs of pre-cancer markers, it is estimated that in 2021 over 14,000 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer, leading to around 4000 deaths in the United States (3).
1. MSD Manual Professional Edition. 2022. Cervical Cancer - Gynecology and Obstetrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition. [online] Available at: <https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/gynecologic-tumors/cervical-cancer> [Accessed 11 January 2022].
2. Schiffman, M., Glass, A., Wentzensen, N., Rush, B., Castle, P., Scott, D., Buckland, J., Sherman, M., Rydzak, G., Kirk, P., Lorincz, A., Wacholder, S. and Burk, R., 2011. A Long-term Prospective Study of Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Neoplasia Among 20,000 Women in the Portland Kaiser Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 20(7), pp.1398-1409.
3. Cancer.org. 2022. Cervical Cancer Statistics | Key Facts About Cervical Cancer. [online] Available at: <https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/about/key-statistics.html> [Accessed 11 January 2022].
4. National Cancer Institute. 2022. Study Confirms HPV Vaccine Prevents Cervical Cancer. [online] Available at: <https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2020/hpv-vaccine-prevents-cervical-cancer-sweden-study> [Accessed 11 January 2022].
5. Leo, P., Madeleine, M., Wang, S., Schwartz, S., Newell, F., Pettersson-Kymmer, U., Hemminki, K., Hallmans, G., Tiews, S., Steinberg, W., Rader, J., Castro, F., Safaeian, M., Franco, E., Coutlée, F., Ohlsson, C., Cortes, A., Marshall, M., Mukhopadhyay, P., Cremin, K., Johnson, L., Garland, S., Tabrizi, S., Wentzensen, N., Sitas, F., Little, J., Cruickshank, M., Frazer, I., Hildesheim, A. and Brown, M., 2017. Defining the genetic susceptibility to cervical neoplasia—A genome-wide association study. PLOS Genetics, 13(8), p.e1006866.
6. Medlineplus.gov. 2022. HLA-DRB1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics. [online] Available at: <https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/hla-drb1/#:~:text=The%20HLA%20complex%20helps%20the,that%20occurs%20in%20many%20species> [Accessed 11 January 2022].